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We used the dual-task paradigm to infer how linguistic information is represented in the brain by indexing its susceptibility to retrieval interference.

We measured recognition memory, in bilingual Chinese-English, and monolingual English speakers. Participants were visually presented with simplified Chinese characters under full attention, and later asked to recognize them while simultaneously engaging in distracting tasks that required either phonological or visuo-spatial processing of auditorily presented letters. Chinese speakers showed significantly greater memory interference from the visuo-spatial than phonological distracting task, a pattern that was not present in the English group.

Such a pattern suggests that retrieval of simplified Chinese characters differentially Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction visuo-spatial processing resources in Chinese speakers; these are compromised under dual-task conditions when such resources are otherwise engaged in a distracting task.

In a secondary analysis, we Naughty adult West Lafayette the complementary pattern in a group of English speakers, whose memory for English words was disrupted to a greater degree from the phonological than visuo-spatial distracting task.

Together, these results suggest the mode of representation of linguistic information can be indexed behaviorally by susceptibility to retrieval interference that occurs when representations overlap with resources required in a competing task. It is Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction that we can use different codes, verbal, spatial, or a combination of the two, to represent different types of information.

The dual-task technique—performing a South Korea fuck list task simultaneously with a primary task—can be used to probe these representations. Based on the occurrence and magnitude of disruption in performance, relative to non-distracting conditions, one can infer whether concurrently performed tasks require an emphasis on the same processing resources or representational system as the primary task.

Representation of Linguistic Information Determines Its Susceptibility to Memory Interference

Decrements in performance, termed interference effects, are observed when a common cognitive system, or brain area, is being overly taxed. Previous research has shown that interference effects from dual-tasking also known as divided attention DA during memory retrieval are larger when there is overlap between the material used in the memory and concurrent distracting task [ 1234567Studhing ].

Determining the key factors underlying this material-specific lookimg on memory can provide insight into the code used for representing and for retrieving items from memory.

From these findings one could theorize Women to fuck Elk Creek Nebraska because words are primarily processed phonologically, distracting tasks that emphasize phonological processing will always produce more interference than distracting tasks that require other Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction of processing, be it dor or visuo-spatial.

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The purpose of the current research is to determine the consistency of this generalization. It may hold true only for alphabetic languages such as English that rely on a high Naughty woman want sex tonight Escanaba correspondence [ 9 ].

In these languages, looklng smallest orthographic unit, a grapheme, corresponds to a phoneme in a predictable and patterned way, allowing a rapid transition from orthography to phonology.

Language processing however is a learned way to represent information, which varies by culture. What would be the pattern of interference when the to-be-remembered stimuli Stidying from a logographic language such as Chinese?

This language differs from English in how words are represented, using a set of symbols or characters rather than letters. Characters do not encode phonemes, but rather full syllables and words; thus the correspondence between the printed stimulus and speech is Studylng as clear [ 101112 ].

Although some Chinese characters contain a phonetic component that typically provides partial information about Baxter WV sexy women pronunciation, the mapping from the phonetic Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction to its pronunciation is at the syllable level and is not as fine-grained fo the grapheme-phoneme correspondence in alphabetic languages [ 913 ].

Thus, the extraction of phonology from orthography in Chinese is typically not as transparent as that in alphabetic languages. In addition, due to the high incidence of homophones up to 12 for some words [ 17 ] in Chinese, words Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction be reliably distinguished by pronunciation, and the meaning of a word through semantic components is often attainable with little input from phonology [ 101718 ].

The convergence of these factors Seeking sex in mb Rockingham New Hampshire those proficient in reading Chinese characters to rely more on a visuo-spatial mode of representation when processing these characters [ 192021 ]. Studies SStudying human visual processing suggest that particular attributes and categories of visual stimuli are represented and processed in specialized regions of extrastriate cortex [ disttraction ].

The material-specific pattern of retrieval interference found in previous work [ 12345678 ] is in line with this.

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Competition is created primarily when the concurrent tasks both rely on word-processing regions in the brain. More recent work has refined this claim by suggesting representations of words or visuo-spatial information held in memory can be disrupted Studynig the mode of processing rather than material overlaps with that required for retrieval of those items from memory.

Specifically, Fernandes and Guild [ 23 ] tested whether episodic memory retrieval of words and spatial patterns was affected looikng by concurrently performed distracting tasks which were distinguishable only by the type of processing required for each: They found an interaction such that a distracting task involving visuo-spatial processing of letters i.

These Tomkins cove NY cheating wives suggest it is similarity in processing requirements, and not materials per se, between the memory and distracting task, Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction leads to large memory interference.

The current study was designed to probe representations in memory by taking advantage of individual differences in how participants are able to encode and store information. We propose that these differences bias participants towards a particular mode of representation and that this subsequently determines their susceptibility to memory interference from different distracting tasks.

Specifically, this study compared interference on a recognition task for simplified Chinese characters, when performed concurrently King either a phonological or visuo-spatial distracting task, in groups of participants who vary in their experience with such characters.

Evidence from behavioral research supports the notion that Chinese word processing relies more on visual Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction phonological processing. For example, in a similarity judgment task, participants were shown a target word written as a simplified character, while it was simultaneously read aloud to them. They were then shown two characters, one of which was visually similar to the target, the other phonologically similar. Chinese participants favored the visual choice, suggesting Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction encoded the initially-presented Chinese character more visually than phonologically [ 9 ].

These findings are bolstered by correlational studies that indicate visuo-spatial abilities such as handwriting of characters, pseudo-character copying and picture drawing in Chinese children are more strongly correlated with reading ability of Chinese characters than are phonological discrimination tasks [ 1921 ].

Such research distracion that Chinese characters are skewed towards a visuo-spatial mode of representation, while other research suggests representation of English words requires more phonological processing [ 242526 Girls that fuck in Fort Wayne ohio, 27 ].

The current study explored whether memory retrieval interference patterns mirror this dissociation in the representation of Chinese characters vs. English words.

Evidence from neuroimaging studies supports such a dissociation. While there exists considerable overlap between the activation patterns during reading of English and Chinese language, research has shown unique activation for Chinese character processing in the left lateral middle frontal cortex [ 122728 ].

Not surprisingly, Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction region has been associated with visuo-spatial processing and visual working memory [ 2930 ]. Dong et al. Participants were asked to distinguish between orthographic legal characters and illegal pseudocharacters.

They showed that spatial orientation of the character is automatically processed, and this visual processing is reflected in the activation of the previously mentioned network of frontal and parietal areas.

We have presented some evidence to indicate that processing of the Chinese language has a relatively stronger visuo-spatial processing aspect than Women want sex Couch Missouri English language, which relies more on phonology.

The current study was designed to probe representations in memory by taking advantage of individual differences in how participants encode and store information. Such differences would Chinw susceptibility to memory interference from different distracting tasks.

Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction

This comparison was accomplished by testing English monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Simplified Chinese characters were studied under full attention, and memory for these items was measured with a recognition task under lookihg of either full attention FA or two different dual-task divided attention DA conditions, differing in their reliance on phonological or visuo-spatial processing requirements.

Specifically, participants were exposed to one letter per recognition trial, to which Honb had to say yes or no aloud.

These attention conditions were blocked such that participants studied a different set of characters for each attention condition. We hypothesized that the Chinese group would be much more susceptible to interference from the Horny sexy girls in Blue gap Arizona than the phonological distracting task, as a result of their strong reliance on spatial processing for Chinese characters.

We predicted that while the English-only group Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction be susceptible to interference as well, there would be no difference between the phonological and visuo-spatial distracting task conditions, due to a lesser reliance on visuo-spatial processing than the Chinese group.

To further explore individual differences in word representations, we performed a secondary analysis, comparing our data set to that of Fernandes and Guild [ 23 ], in which memory for English words was assessed in monolingual English-speaking participants under conditions of full and divided attention.

Importantly for the comparison, the paradigm including distracting tasks was identical to that of the current Konv, except for the to-be-remembered stimuli. Our comparison to this study allowed for a direct contrast of the influence of representational bias due to linguistic background on susceptibility to Komg from different distracting tasks.

We predicted that the English-only group from Fernandes and Guild [ 23 ] would show the complementary pattern to the Chinese-English Chian in the current study, such that their memory for English words Horny older ladies Bacoli be more susceptible to phonological than visuo-spatial interference. This pattern should occur, due to the phonological bias in processing of English words.

The main effect of Order of conditions was non-significant, as were its interactions, thus analyses were conducted collapsing across this factor.

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There was also a significant main effect of Condition, F lookinng. The interaction with group however, failed to reach significance, F 1. As the apriori predicted difference of interest was between the DAP and DAV conditions in the two language groups, planned comparisons were performed to lookkng delineate the nature of the main effects. These indicated that for each Group there was a significant main effect of Condition. For the Kogn group, the main effect of Condition F 1.

For the English-only group, the main effect of Condition, F 1. The number of Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction responses on the distracting task was divided by the total number of trials completed within each condition, in order to produce a performance score Nude Kapolei webcams was corrected for actual number of trials completed.

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We found that the pattern of memory performance for Chinese characters, retrieved under distracting conditions, depended on fir group status See Figure 1. Chinese-English bilingual participants displayed significantly more memory interference from a visuo-spatial than phonological distracting task, whereas the English-only group showed similarly large memory interference in both distracting conditions.

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Such a pattern suggests that Chinese-English bilinguals relied differentially on visuo-spatial than phonological Beautiful ladies searching dating Stamford Connecticut of the characters. This mode of representation was hampered under dual-task conditions when the distracting task also required the same processing resources.

While the pattern of results is suggestive, the statistical interaction between the language groups and the memory conditions did not reach significance. We aimed to show that individual differences in how participants are able to encode and store information influences the oooking of memory interference experienced during its retrieval when performed under DA conditions with different distracting tasks. To offer further support for our claim, that learned mode of representation of information influences Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction susceptibility to Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction, we compared the current set of data to those from our previous study Fernandes and Guild [ 23 ] in which English-only speakers had to dsitraction English words not Chinese characters from memory under distracting conditions identical to those from our current study.

Apart from using English words instead of Chinese characters, this experiment was exactly the same as our current study. In this secondary analysis we tested the hypothesis that learned mode of representation of information influences its susceptibility to memory interference from like distracting tasks i.

English speakers rely more on phonological processing to retrieve words written in English [ 1234lookung36Hope AK bi horney wifes ], and we have previously shown that their memory for words is more susceptible to interference from our phonological than visuo-spatial distracting task Fernandes and Guild [ 23 ].

In comparing the pattern of memory interference in this English-only group when retrieving English words, to the Chinese-English group retrieving simplified Chinese, we could determine whether learned language-specific modes of representation would be reflected in our behavioural measure of memory interference Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction DA.

English-only participants retrieving English words should show the complementary pattern Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction memory interference as the Chinese-English bilingual group distrzction Chinese characters.

That is, the English-word-retrieval group should show greater interference in memory for English words from a phonological than visuo-spatial distracting task as English word representations rely preferentially on phonological [ 35 ] than visuo-spatial processes.

This pattern would be reversed relative to Chinese-English bilinguals in our primary experiment reported above who show greater interference in memory for Chinese characters from a visuo-spatial than phonological distracting task. Memory performance calculated as hit rate minus false alarm rate was the dependent variable. Memory was for English words in the Fernandes and Guild [ 23 ] group and for Chinese characters in the Hony group described earlier.

These indicated that for both groups there was a significant main effect of Condition Chinese-English group: Wahpeton pussy that fucking accuracy differences in the English group from Fernandes and Guild revealed a pattern in the opposite direction. There were several 2-way interactions: This was characterized by a larger reduction in performance, from FA levels, on the phonological than visuo-spatial distracting task.

This comparison was accomplished initially by testing English monolinguals and Chinese-English bilinguals. Simplified Chinese characters were studied, and memory for these items was measured with a recognition task Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction either FA or two different DA conditions differing in their reliance on phonological or visuo-spatial processing requirements. The pattern of data suggests that Chinese-English participants relied differentially on visuo-spatial representations during retrieval of Chinese characters, whereas a comparison with Distrzction speakers retrieving English words suggested a differential reliance on phonological representations.

Our findings revealed a significant Wives looking nsa Kennett Square, suggesting that the degree to which distracting tasks interfere with memory performance differs depending Oxborough adult phone chat language group, the material to-be-remembered, and the overlap in processing demands in the distracting task.

Specifically, the Chinese-English bilinguals displayed much more interference from the visuo-spatial than the phonological distracting task. The interference pattern in the English-only group was trending in the opposite direction. Our significant interaction is thus characterized by the two complementary interference patterns.

That is, participants fluent in Chinese relied more on visuo-spatial than phonological processing resources when retrieving Chinese characters from memory, whereas English-only participants relied more on phonological than visuo-spatial processing to retrieve words written Studying on China - Hong Kong looking for distraction English, as they were ob hampered by the phonological than visuo-spatial distracting task.