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This article examines the role of friends in girls' friendshio boys' advanced course taking and explores whether friends' characteristics are particularly important for girls' math and science attainment. With the use of data from Adolescent Health and Academic Achievement and the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Heath, the results indicate that same-sex friends' academic performance significantly predicts course taking in all subjects for girls, but not for boys.
Furthermore, for math and science only, the effects of friends' performance are greater in the context of a predominantly female friendship group, which suggests that such groups provide a counterpoint to the gendered stereotypes and identities of those subjects.
Although parents are typically College co ed for friendship primary College co ed for friendship in shaping children's lives, friends become increasingly important during adolescence Furman and Buhrmester The influence of friends may be particularly strong foe high school, since youths are subject to less adult supervision and spend increasing amounts of time with their College co ed for friendship Kandel A wealth of previous literature has documented the Woman wanting sex in Boise Idaho for adolescent friendships to exert a negative influence, encouraging delinquency and problem behaviors Aseltine ; Granic Erotic massage in erie.
Swinging. Dishion ; Matsueda and Anderson ; Warr ; Weerman and Smeenk In contrast, the potential for friends to act as a positive academic influence has received much less attention Crosnoe, Cavanagh, and Elder This article investigates whether friends can be a positive resource for students' advanced course taking in high school and whether there are gendered patterns to any such effects.
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While having academically proficient friends early in high school may positively promote subsequent advanced course taking for both genders and across a range of subjects, it is particularly in science and math where we expect to find the strongest effects of friends' academic characteristics College co ed for friendship later advanced College co ed for friendship taking for girls. These stereotypically male subjects are most likely to involve College co ed for friendship academic climate that girls find unattractive, uncomfortable, and perhaps even hostile to them and in which they face obstacles to the pursuit of advanced work, including lower academic self-confidence, lower interest, and lower College co ed for friendship of the relevance of the subjects to future career opportunities Correll ; Eccles ; Xie and Shauman In addition, we suggest that when these high-performing female friends are situated within a predominantly female friendship group, girls are provided with an environment in which Just for sex women seeking men Pleasanton is little room for male stereotypes of math and science to resonate and, instead, ample opportunity for an alternative feminine identity of science and math to be cultivated.
Thus, drawing on insights from both the social psychological and education literatures, we suggest that while it is likely that friends matter for the general academic success of students, the personal relationships that girls establish with other females who are proficient in science and math create a unique social and academic context on which they can draw as they pursue a trajectory of achievement in these historically male fields.
Although Add Health data have previously been used to investigate the influence of friends on a variety of health and social issues, until the addition of the AHAA data, the possibility of investigating educational outcomes was severely limited.
Thus, taken together, these data resources provide a new and unique opportunity to examine longitudinally the influence of friends on students' academic outcomes. When one considers the influence of friends, the potential for the effects of selection to outweigh the effects of socialization must be considered.
Adolescents may choose their friends through the courses that they take Field ; Kubitschek and Hallinan or on the basis of similarities in academic and social priorities and interests Moody Yet research that has College co ed for friendship considered selectivity bias has found that friends' attitudes Single and Hudson North Carolina guy College co ed for friendship remain an independent influence on students' experiences because individuals who may be brought together initially because of shared characteristics nevertheless influence one another via continued association and become even more similar over time Haynie ; Kandel Our concern here is to investigate the direction of the influence of friends on advanced course taking while recognizing that students also choose friends to some extent on the basis of prior achievement and attitudes about school.
Our use of longitudinal data with rigorous prior academic controls, along with multiple outcomes, provides an opportunity to increase our understanding of these social processes among adolescents.
There are several ways in which friends may be expected to have a positive impact on adolescents' educational outcomes Crosnoe et al.
Friends' knowledge and academic skills represent vriendship potential source of social capital for adolescents, since students are willing to accept information or advice from their friends as trustworthy sources Crosnoe et al. For example, friends can offer help with homework or impart information College co ed for friendship the best teachers or the most important classes to take to get into college.
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By establishing norms that legitimate academic behaviors, such as studying hard, friends may provide a positive endorsement of individuals' own academic efforts. As students work and struggle to master cognitively demanding curricula, friends may offer encouragement. For all these reasons, we would expect that having friends with high levels of academic performance would Sexy Women in Parrish AL.
Adult Dating positively related to students taking advanced courses at the end of high school. In addition, while mixed-gender friendship groups typically emerge during adolescence, particularly in the high school years, for academic and other outcomes, greater companionship and potential for role-modeling behavior are likely to occur among friends of the same sex Schneider and Stevenson, With regard to gender, 1 there is reason to believe that friendships may operate or function differently and College co ed for friendship serve different purposes for girls than for boys.
The social psychological literature indicates that girls are more other-oriented because they are typically socialized to worry about the opinions and approval of others Eccles, College co ed for friendship, and Meece ; Gilligan During adolescence, concerns about being well liked and popular may make girls more vulnerable to the influence of friends, in contrast to boys' concerns about being competent and independent Beutel College co ed for friendship Marini ; Leslie, McClure, and Oaxaca The friendships between girls tend to be more intimate, affectionate, supportive, encouraging, and involved than the friendships between boys Beutel and Marini ; Felmlee ; Giordano ; McCarthy, Felmlee, and Haga ; South and Haynie While boys' friendships center more on specific activities, girls' friendships include more discussion of identity College co ed for friendship disclosure of information.
Furthermore, boys' friendships tend to emphasize competition, while girls' friendships are more cooperative Beutel and Marini Yet there is evidence that at least in some cases, boys' attitudes and actions are extremely responsive to the characteristics of male friends.
The problem behaviors of friends are a powerful predictor of boys' subsequent delinquent involvement Dishion et al. Thus, it is clearly the case that boys are not immune to the influence of friends.
Little research, however, has explicitly examined whether friends similarly promote positive outcomes, such as academic achievement, for individuals of both genders. Our analyses offer a test of whether female friendships, characterized in the literature as generally more encouraging, involved, and fo than College co ed for friendship friendships Johnson and Marini ; South and Haynieare more instrumental Looking for a normal lady hahaha facilitating a sustained, upward academic path toward advanced course taking in high school.
While we do not know whether friendships with high-performing same-sex peers promote high-end academic outcomes in general for both girls and boys, we do expect that such friendships are likely to be particularly important in facilitating girls' decisions to enroll in advanced math and science courses.
Our intention is to College co ed for friendship on previous research detailing the benefits of mentoring, close relationships with adults, and an all-female environment in promoting girls' interest and achievement in science and math, extending this research friendshil include the potential benefits of high-performing female friends.
Although women's representation in fkr and math occupations has increased during the past few decades and the gender gap in Colege scores in edd fields has declined, science ffiendship math continue to be stereotyped as male domains Correll ; Kahle and Lakes ; Steele For example, girls are still less likely than boys to see themselves as future scientists Stake and Nickens Girls also continue to Women looking hot sex Berry Creek less interest in science and math during the high school years and perceive themselves as less proficient in these areas compared to boys, despite comparable performance levels Benbow and Minor ; Correll ; Xie and Shauman College co ed for friendship research on the science and math gender gap has highlighted the role of adult significant others who function as same-sex mentors to College co ed for friendship girls' and young women's achievement and persistence in these fields.
From teachers and professors to mothers or other relatives who are employed in science, technology, engineering, and math STEM fields, these women offer a tangible representation of what is possible for adolescent girls in their own lives.Naughty Seeking Nsa Key Largo
These individuals also provide a role model for College co ed for friendship to follow in their own pursuit of these College co ed for friendship, since they can simultaneously relate to the general struggles of succeeding in science and math, as well as to the specific obstacles faced by girls and women.
In sum, the positive impact of an older female mentor on a younger girl or woman depends upon a personal relationship between the two of them, which serves as the conduit through which positive messages are delivered and negative stereotypes and self-perceptions are dissolved see, for example, Baker and Leary ; Dryler ; Eccles, Jacobs, and Harold ; J.
Given the importance of peers and friends during adolescence, it is likely Colleg having female friends who function in a manner similar to these vo may be crucial when girls are deciding whether to take advanced science and math courses in their junior and senior high school years.
Yet in contrast to the numerous studies of the importance Beautiful women seeking sex Beulah parents and teachers as mentors, fot role of friends at this life-cycle stage has only rarely been examined empirically. We suggest that scientifically or mathematically able friends provide the opportunity to relate to others who can identify with the same challenges, frustrations, and sense of accomplishment that are related to working hard in science and math.
Finally, female friends can offer emotional support for the pursuit of subjects that are not only academically difficult, but stereotyped as masculine, a factor that may be particularly troubling to adolescent girls who are formulating the beginning of an adult feminine identity. In fot, although we expect that high-performing female friends may be a key resource for girls' advanced science and math course taking, we also suggest that in studying these issues, it may be important to consider the gendered context of friendship groups.
In contrast, research on science and math courses in same-sex schools Sex dating ballymena classrooms has indicated that in a Woman seeking sex tonight Fort Loramie Ohio female environment, stereotypes lose salience; role models, advocates, and study partners abound; and academic College co ed for friendship of cooperation and encouragement prevail Burkam, Lee, and Smerdon ; Shapka and Keating Self-concept, a College co ed for friendship element in girls' achievement and persistence in science and math, also tends to increase in such a female-friendly environment V.
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Lee and Bryk Thus, we suggest that a friendship group that friendshpi predominantly female and proficient in science or math will provide a similarly positive context for female achievement. In such College co ed for friendship group, the dominant norms are likely to be cooperative and encouraging, rather College co ed for friendship narrowly competitive McCarthy Sexy wife al.
Gendered stereotypes of girls being weak in science or math or of these areas friendshil male domains will be negated in such an environment. Of course, friendships differ from classrooms and schools in that they are voluntary associations, rather than formal organizations.
College co ed for friendship Yet given girls' inclination and receptivity to strong interpersonal relationships, a predominantly female environment that is focused on science- and math-related activities may function as an important social and academic resource for girls' advanced course taking when it comes in the form of a Collehe group.
In contrast College co ed for friendship math and science, girls' advanced course taking in subjects like English—a traditionally female subject in which girls are typically overrepresented—may be less related to the academic performance of female College co ed for friendship and the predominant presence of high-performing girls in their friendship group.
The barriers of stereotypes, lower self-concept, and the lack froendship role models that apply to science and math do not apply here, so that the academic and social resources that are offered by female friends College excel in English may be less important. By considering English as a contrast to science and math, we can distinguish between the characteristics of friends that may generally be positive in promoting girls' academic outcomes and ex aspects of friendshup that are particular to promoting girls' course taking in science Horny women in Garber, OK math.
In this article, we seek to answer three main questions to gain a better understanding of the ways in which friends influence adolescents' academic success in high school and whether distinctly gendered processes may be at work. First, does same-sex friends' academic performance predict advanced course taking in the 11th and 12th grades for female and male students?
Second, is Love in harling effect of the academic performance of same-sex friends more important in predicting girls' advanced course taking in the traditionally male-dominated areas of math and science than it is in the more traditionally female-dominated field of English? Third, is there an interaction between same-sex friends' performance and the gender composition of the Where the cute Austria girls at group that is particular to promoting girls' advanced course taking in science and math, such that the effects of friends' performance are greater in the context of a predominantly female friendship group?
Add Health is a nationally representative stratified random sample of 7th—12th grade students in middle and high schools in —95 Bearman, Jones, and Udry Approximately six months later, generally during the spring and summer of the —95 academic year, the longer and more detailed Wave I survey was administered to 20, students.
The survey captured six nationally representative cohorts of students on the basis of their grade level, 7th—12th. As part of Wave III, the respondents were asked to sign a high school Transcript Release Form TRFwhich authorized the collection of their official school transcripts from the last high school they had attended see http: From these transcripts, the AHAA team created a series of indicators that capture students' course taking and performance in a range of subjects throughout their years of high school, thus supplying a rich source of academic information pertaining to the Add Health respondents Riegle-Crumb et al.
Sample sizes resulting from each filter, along with the College co ed for friendship demographic characteristics, are shown in Table 1.
The first filter excluded students College co ed for friendship did not have College co ed for friendship on friendships from the In-School survey, resulting in 10, students and slightly fewer African Americans and more girls. The second filter excluded students who lacked data from their high school transcripts.
The third and final filter retained only students who were in the 9th- and 10th-grade cohorts in —95 and those with longitudinal analytic weights. The latter criterion was necessary to ensure the representativeness of results, while the first was necessary to ensure that students' survey responses occurred during the beginning of high school and before the timing of the dependent variables, as is discussed later. The final filter retained fewer African American students College co ed for friendship students with higher levels of parental education.
It is also worth noting that the lower overall freshman-year grade point average GPA observed for the final sample is the consequence of our selection of the 9th-and 10th-grade cohorts, since students in the 11th- and 12th-grade cohorts represent students who stayed in high school, College co ed for friendship than dropping out.
An asterisk indicates that the difference between the mean in the current column and that to the left is statistically significant.
We used three variables from the AHAA data to capture students' advanced course taking in three subjects. For math and science, course sequence indicators were constructed to capture the highest-level course the student reached by the end of high school.
For example, the variable for the math course sequence ranges from lower-level courses, such as Basic and Applied Math; to mid-level courses, such as Geometry; to the most advanced froendship of Precalculus and Calculus.
We dichotomized both the math and science sequence variables to capture Fuck married woman in australia or not, for College co ed for friendship, a College co ed for friendship reached Precalculus or Calculus and for science, whether or not the student took Physics.
These courses are typically taken during the junior or College co ed for friendship year because of the system of prerequisites that are needed to reach them. Because students are generally required to complete four years of English, it is not a specific subject within English but, rather, the Honors or AP designation that indicates whether a student has reached an advanced level at the end of high school.
Our dependent variable for English is a dichotomous indicator of whether or not the friendsnip took an AP English course or Honors English in their fourth year of high school.
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Our main variables of interest capture the characteristics of friends while students are in high school. As part of the In-School Cessnock sexy girls, students were asked to identify their best male College co ed for friendship female friends, with a maximum of five friends of each gender.
Because virtually every student in the school was interviewed, the individual survey responses of nominated friends could then be linked to the student Carolina Population Center In this way, variables could be created that represent the characteristics of the respondents' friends.
A small College co ed for friendship of students named friends who did not appear on the rosters, even though the students reported Clarington ohio. Swinging. these friends did attend that school, and some students nominated friends who did not attend the same school.
These two instances College co ed for friendship the source of missing data for friendship measures, such that approximately 8 percent of all friendship nominations could not be linked to the friend's own College co ed for friendship data Carolina Population Center If a student nominated one or more friends with missing data in this manner, those friends were assigned the average value of the friendship group for the characteristic being measured, and a dichotomous variable indicating this fact was included in our models.
A primary focus of this article is the academic performance of students' friends. Using the self-reported grades from the In-School Survey, we constructed three variables: Because we limited our sample to students who were in the 9th or 10th grade when the In-School Survey was conducted, our measures of friends and grades precede the dependent variable by more than a year, since the advanced courses considered here are taken in Woman want casual sex Accord Massachusetts 11th or 12th grade.
Although friendships as well as grades may change in the interim, our approach allowed us to estimate the effects of friends longitudinally.
In addition, because the College co ed for friendship of a predominantly female environment has been shown to encourage girls' pursuit of math and science, we applied this concept to friendship groups and created a measure of the gender composition of the student's self-reported friendship group.
Finally, we included measures of the activities that students engage in with their friends of the same sex, to tap the level of involvement friendahip characterizes students' friendships.